Minggu, 20 Desember 2009


IPod Touch 2.0.png
2nd/3rd Generation iPod Touch
Apple Inc.
Portable media player/PDA
Retail availability
1st generation: September 13, 2007
2nd generation: September 9, 2008
3rd generation: September 9, 2009 - present

Flash memory
1st/2nd generation: 8, 16 and 32 GB
3rd generation: 32 and 64 GB

Operating system
iPhone OS
1st generation: 1.1 originally, 3.1.2 (build 7D11) with Software Update
2nd generation: 2.1.1 originally, 3.1.2 (build 7D11) with Software Update
3rd generation: 3.1.1 originally, 3.1.2 (build 7D11) with Software Update

Lithium-ion battery
1st generation: Audio - 22 hours, Video - 5 hours
2nd generation: Audio - 36 hours, Video - 6 hours
3rd generation: Audio - 30 hours, Video - 6 hours

1st generation: ARM11 620 MHz (underclocked to 400 MHz, then 412 MHz)
2nd generation: ARM11 620 MHz (underclocked to 533 MHz)[1], with internal ARM7 core for Jazelle acceleration
3rd generation: ARM Cortex-A8 833 MHz (underclocked to 600 MHz)

1st/2nd generation: 128 MB DRAM
3rd generation: 256 MB DRAM

320 × 480 px, 3.5 in (89 mm), 2:3 aspect ratio, 262,144-color LCD at 163 pixels per inch (ppi)
1st/2nd generation: PowerVR MBX Lite[2]
3rd generation: PowerVR SGX

Multi-touch touchscreen display, proximity and ambient light sensors, 3-axis accelerometer, volume buttons on 2nd and 3rd generation, voice control
Wi-Fi (802.11b/g)
USB 2.0/Dock connector
1st generation: unavailable
2nd generation: Bluetooth 2.1+EDR; requires iPod Touch OS 3.0 Update[3]

1st generation:
4.3 in (110 mm) (h)
2.4 in (61 mm) (w)
0.31 in (7.9 mm) (d)
2nd/3rd generation:
4.3 in (110 mm) (h)
2.4 in (61 mm) (w)
0.33 in (8.4 mm) (d)

1st generation: 120 grams (4.2 oz)
2nd/3rd generation: 115 grams (4.1 oz)

Related articles
iPhone (Comparison of iPhone and iPod touch)
The iPod Touch (trademarked and marketed as iPod touch) is a Digital portable media player, personal digital assistant, and Wi-Fi mobile platform designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The product was launched on September 5, 2007, at an event called The Beat Goes On.[4] The iPod Touch adds the multi-touch graphical user interface to the iPod line. It is the first iPod with wireless access to the iTunes Store, and also has access to Apple's App Store, enabling content to be purchased and downloaded directly on the device. Apple Inc. has sold 20 million iPod Touch units as of September 2009.[5]
The iPod Touch is currently in its third generation (3G), which is available with 32 or 64 GB of flash memory. The 8 GB second generation (2G) model is also available. The second generation iPod Touch, featuring external volume controls, a built-in speaker, a contoured back, built-in Nike+, Bluetooth support, and the ability to connect a microphone, was unveiled on September 9, 2008, at the "Let's Rock" keynote presentation. The third generation iPod Touch with the new iPhone OS 3.1 was announced and subsequently released on September 9, 2009. The third generation includes faster hardware (the same microprocessors, graphics engine, and RAM as the iPhone 3GS), a slightly lower battery life, voice control, light sensor, and bundled earphones with a remote and microphone. The new generation and the concurrently available second generation 8 GB model are available at a new lower pricing structure.


The iPod Touch has a slim rectangular shape with rounded edges, with a glass touchscreen display covering most of the top surface and a physical home button off the touchscreen. The display functions similarly to the multi-touch trackpad as implemented in Apple's current line of laptop computers. The touch and gesture features of the iPod Touch are based on technology originally developed by FingerWorks.[6] On February 5, 2008, a 32 GB version was added in addition to the 8 and 16 GB models. On September 9, 2009, a 64 GB version was added and the 16 GB model was removed from the line-up.


The home screen has a list of icons for the available applications. All iPod Touch models include such applications as Music, Videos, and Photos (collectively duplicating the standard functions of the iPod Classic), iTunes (providing access to the Wi-Fi Music Store), Safari, YouTube, Calendar, Contacts, Clock, Calculator, and Settings. Later models added Mail (accessing POP/IMAP/SMTP e-mail), Maps, Stocks, Notes, and Weather, which could also be added to the earlier models with the purchase of a software upgrade. The user can add direct links to Web sites, called "Web Clips", to the home screen. All iPod Touch models are equipped with Wi-Fi 802.11b/g.
On July 11, 2008, the iPhone 2.0 Software Update was released for purchase for the iPod Touch. The update allowed first generation iPod Touch devices access to the App Store to download third-party applications, in addition to a host of minor bug fixes. On June 17, 2009, the iPhone 3.0 Software Update was released for purchase for the iPod Touch. The update allowed the devices to use new apps, and unlocked the Bluetooth functionality of the second-generation iPod Touch, enabling A2DP and P2P apps.

Comparisons to the iPhone and model comparisons

The iPod Touch and the iPhone, a smartphone by Apple, share the same hardware platform and run the same iPhone OS operating system. The iPod Touch lacks some of the iPhone's features such as access to cellular networks and a built-in camera (and microphone on older models); as a result, the iPod Touch is slimmer and lighter than the iPhone. Steve Jobs once referred to the iPod Touch as "training wheels for the iPhone".[7]
The second generation iPod Touch has an external volume switch and a built-in speaker like the iPhone. The second generation also comes with the chrome frame seen on the iPhone 3G, making the two almost identical when viewed from the front. However, there are some notable differences, as there is no speaker above the screen, no silent/ringer switch, the back is metal, and the sleep/wake button is on the other side. The second generation also supports audio input when a headphone or earphone with microphone capabilities is plugged into the audio output (headphone) jack. The iPod Touch 2.0 Software Update supports WPA2 Enterprise with 802.1X authentication.[8] The iPhone OS 3.0 update unlocked Bluetooth capability on the second generation iPod Touch, as the included Wi-Fi chip (Broadcom BCM4325) has Bluetooth support.[9][10]
Second generation iPod Touches are said to have a yellower cast/tint to the display, as compared to the iPhone or the original iPod Touch.[11] The applications processor inside the second generation iPod Touch runs slightly faster than the processor inside the iPhone 3G, but slower than the iPhone 3GS.[12][13] The first generation iPod Touch works with all "Made for iPod" peripherals, but certain changes that Apple made to the second generation iPod Touch prevent some existing peripherals from recharging the updated player.[14] The Google Street View feature added on iPhone firmware version 2.2 is absent from the same version of firmware released on the iPod Touch [15] but is found in the 3.0 update.
Apple has received criticism for its allegedly differential treatment of iPhone and iPod Touch owners. Such criticism is primarily targeted towards Apple charging iPod Touch owners for major software updates of the iPhone OS that iPhone owners can obtain at no charge as well as excluding certain features from the iPod Touch software that are included in the iPhone.[16][17] Apple has been reported as saying that they can add features for free to the iPhone because the revenue from it is accounted for on a subscription basis under accounting rules, rather than as a one time payment.[18]


As supplied new, the iPod Touch needs a connection to a computer for initial configuration.[19] Officially, Apple requires iTunes to be installed on either a Mac OS X or Windows operating system based computer for configuring the iPod Touch. On either operating system, the iPod Touch must be connected through a USB port.[20] The first time the iPod Touch is turned on, a "connect cable to iTunes" graphic will be displayed continuously until the iPod Touch is connected to a computer running iTunes.[21]
To use the iPod Touch for buying products at the iTunes Music Store via Wi-Fi, an iTunes Music Store account must be created and the account details then entered into the iPod.[citation needed]
Apple states that the following is required for the iPod Touch:[22]
  • A computer running either:

    • Mac OS X 10.4.10 or later
    • Microsoft Windows XP with SP2 or later, or Microsoft Windows Vista (32 or 64-bit versions)

  • iTunes 8.2 for iPhone OS 3.0.x or later, iTunes 8.0 for iPhone OS 2.1.x, iTunes 7.6 for iPhone OS 2.0.x or earlier
  • Available USB 2.0 port

Third-party applications

The App Store on an iPod Touch.

Jailbroken first generation iPod Touch in a red case, running firmware version 1.1.1.
The only official way to obtain third-party applications for the iPod Touch is Apple's App Store, which is a branch of iTunes Store. The App Store application, available in all versions of the iPhone OS from iPhone OS 2.0 onwards, allows users to browse and download applications from a single online repository (hosted by Apple) with the iTunes Store. To develop such software, a software development kit (SDK) was officially announced on March 6, 2008, at an Apple Town Hall meeting.[23] The iPhone SDK allows developers to make applications for the iPhone and iPod Touch after paying a fee to join the development team. The developer can then set the price for the applications they develop and will receive 70% of money earned. The developer can also opt to release the application for free and will not pay any additional costs.
Shortly after the iPod Touch was released, hackers were able to "jailbreak" the device through a TIFF exploit. The resulting application enabled the user to download a selection of unofficial third-party programs. Some of these give the user more control over the iPod Touch than is officially available, and also make it possible to install Linux operating systems on the device. All officially released versions of the iPhone OS through 3.0 can be jailbroken,[24][25] but version 3.1 could not at the time it was released.[26] Servicing an iPod Touch after jailbreaking or other modifications made by unofficial means is not covered by Apple's warranty.[27]


The specifications as listed on Apple's website for the 8GB second generation iPod Touch and third generation iPod Touch are:[20][28]
  • Screen material: glass (arsenic free)
  • Screen size: 3.5 in
  • Screen resolution: 480x320 px at 163 ppi, with 3:2 aspect ratio
  • Input method: Multi-touch screen interface, Sleep/Wake button, Accelerometer, Home button, Volume Rocker buttons (2nd/3rd Gen only)
  • Operating system: iPhone OS (current version 3.1.2, build 7D11)
  • Storage: 8, 32 and 64 GB flash memory
  • CPU: Initially ARM 400 MHz, but now 412 MHz for 1st generation, 533 MHz[1] for 2nd Generation and ARM Cortex-A8 833 MHz underclocked to 600 MHz for 3rd Generation
  • GPU: PowerVR MBX Lite in 2nd Generation[29] and PowerVR SGX GPU for 3rd Generation
  • RAM: 128 MB DRAM in 1st & 2nd Generation and 256 MB DRAM in 3rd Generation
  • Wi-Fi (802.11 b/g)
  • Built-in rechargeable, non-removable lithium battery with up to 6 hours of video playback, and up to 36 (30 in 3rd Gen and Fall 2009 2nd Gen) hours of audio playback, times vary.
  • Built-in audio speaker (except in 1st generation)[30]
  • 3.5 mm audio output jack
  • Size: 110×61.8×8 mm (4.3×2.4×0.33 in)
  • Weight: 115 grams (4.1 oz)
Source: Wikipedia 

Jumat, 18 Desember 2009

Digital Mp3 Audio Players

A digital audio player, usually referred to as an Digital MP3 player, is a consumer electronic device that has the primary function of storing, organizing and playing audio files. Some DAPs are also referred to as portable media players as they have image-viewing and/or video-playing support.

The immediate predecessor in the market place of the digital audio player was the portable CD player, or "portable audio device."

Kane Kramer designed one of the earliest digital audio players, which he called the IXI. His 1979 prototype was capable of approximately 3.5 minutes of audio playback but it did not enter commercial production. His UK patent application was not filed until 1981, patent 2115996 issued in 1985, and U.S. Patent 4,667,088 in 1987. Apple Inc. hired Kramer as a consultant and presented his work as an example of prior art in the field of digital audio players during their litigation with Burst.com almost two decades later.

One of the chips making it possible to create portable MP3 players before market for mass produced devices took off was the Micronas MAS3507D ASIC MP3 Decoder chip. Several electronics DIY projects used this circuit. As a software based approach would have limited battery time severely. This chip allowed the microcontroller to read data from a flash memory and feed the decoder chip, creating a low power solution.

The world's first mass-produced hardware MP3 player was created in 1997 by Saehan Information Systems, which domestically sold its “MPMan” player in the middle of 1998. The South Korean company then licensed the players to Eiger Labs which distributed them—now branded as Eiger Labs MPMan F10—to the North American market during the summer of 1998. The flash-based players were available in 32 MB storage capacity.

The Rio PMP300 from Diamond Multimedia was introduced in September 1998, a few months after the MPMan. It was a success during the holiday season, with sales exceeding expectations. Interest and investment in digital music were subsequently spurred from it. Because of the player's notoriety as the target of a major lawsuit, the Rio is erroneously assumed to be the first DAP.

In 1998, Compaq developed the first hard drive based DAP using a 2.5" laptop drive. It was licensed to HanGo Electronics (now known as Remote Solution), which first sold the PJB-100 (Personal Jukebox) in 1999. The player had an initial capacity of 4.8 GB, with an advertised capacity of 1200 songs.

In 2000, Creative released the 6GB hard drive based Creative NOMAD Jukebox. The name borrowed the jukebox metaphor popularised by Remote Solution and also used by Archos. Later players in the Creative NOMAD range used microdrives rather than laptop drives.

In October 2001, Apple Computer (now known as Apple Inc.) unveiled the first generation iPod, a 5 GB hard drive based DAP with a 1.8" Toshiba Microdrive. With the development of a spartan user interface and a smaller form factor, the iPod was initially popular within the Macintosh community. In July 2002, Apple introduced the second generation update to the iPod. It was compatible with Windows computers through Musicmatch Jukebox. The iPod series, which grew to include microdrive and flash-based players, has become the market leader in DAPs.

In 2002, Archos released the first "portable media player" (PMP), the Archos Jukebox Multimedia. Manufacturers have since implemented abilities to view images and play videos into their devices.

In 2003 the first MP3 players were installed into mobile phones in South Korea and the first artist to sell songs as MP3 file downloads directly to mobile phones was Ricky Martin. The innovation spread rapidly and by 2005, more than half of all music sold in South Korea was sold directly to mobile phones. The idea spread across the globe and by 2005 all five major handset makers, Nokia, Motorola, Samsung, LG and SonyEricsson had released musicphones. By 2006, more MP3 players were sold in musicphones than all stand-alone MP3 players put together. The rapid rise of the musicphone was quoted by Apple as a primary reason for developing the iPhone. In 2007, the installed base of musicphones passed the 1 billion level, and today more than half of all mobile phones in the world have an MP3 player.

Although online music services such as RealNetworks’ Rhapsody also offer legal downloads through a subscription plan, the launch of the iTunes Store in 2003 established the model of selling individual songs and albums for purchase.

Connecting a computer to a SanDisk Sansa Clip.

Digital sampling is used to convert an audio wave to a sequence of binary numbers that can be stored in a digital format, such as MP3. Common features of all MP3 players are a memory storage device, such as flash memory or a miniature hard disk drive, an embedded processor, and an audio codec microchip to convert the compressed file into an analogue sound signal.

Most DAPs are powered by rechargeable batteries, some of which are not user-replaceable. They have a 3.5 mm stereo jack; music can be listened to with earbuds or headphones, or played via an external amplifier. Some devices also contain internal speakers, through which music can be listened to, although these built-in speakers are typically of very low quality.

Nearly all DAPs consists of some kind of display screen, although there are exceptions, such as the iPod Shuffle, and a set of controls with which the user can browse through the library of music contained in the device, select a track, and play it back. The display, if the unit even has one, can be anything from a simple one or two line monochrome LCD display, similar to what are found on typical calculators, to large full-color displays capable of displaying photographs or viewing video content on. The controls can range anywhere from the simple buttons as are found on most typical CD players, such as for skipping through tracks or stopping/starting playback to full touch-screen controls, such as that found on the iPod Touch or the Zune HD. One of the more common methods of control is some type of the scroll wheel with associated buttons. This method of control was first introduced with the Apple iPod and many other manufacturers have created variants of this control scheme for their respective devices.

Content is placed on DAPs typically through a process called "syncing", by connecting the device to a personal computer, typically via USB, and running any special software that is often provided with the DAP on an enclosed CD-ROM, or downloaded from the manufacturer's website. Some devices simply appear as an additional disk drive on the host computer, to which music files are simply copied like any other type of file. Other devices, most notably the Apple iPod or Microsoft Zune, requires the use of special management software, such as iTunes or Zune Software. The music, or other content such as TV episodes or movies, is added to the software to create a "library". The library is then "synced" to the DAP via the software. The software typically provides options for managing situations when the library is to large to fit on the device being synced to. Such options include allowing manual syncing, in that the user most manually "drag-n-drop" the desired tracks to the device, or allow for the creation of playlists. Some of the more advanced units are now starting to allow syncing through a wireless connection, such as via WiFi or Bluetooth.

Content can also be obtained and placed on some DAPs, such as the iPod Touch or Zune HD by allowing access to a "store" or "marketplace", most notably the iTunes Store or Zune Marketplace, from which content, such as music and video, and even games, can be purchased and downloaded directly to the device.

Close-up view of the Philips GoGear SA1110 flash-based player
An embedded hard drive-based player (Creative ZEN Vision:M)
An MP3 CD player (Philips Expanium)

Digital audio players are generally categorized by storage media:

* Flash-based Players: These are non-mechanical solid state devices that hold digital audio files on internal flash memory or removable flash media called memory cards. Due to technological advancements in flash memory, these originally low-storage devices are now available commercially ranging up to 64 GB. Because they are solid state and do not have moving parts they require less battery power and may be more resilient to hazards such as dropping or fragmentation than hard disk-based players. Basic MP3 player functions are commonly integrated into USB flash drives.
* Hard drive-based Players or Digital Jukeboxes: Devices that read digital audio files from a hard disk drive (HDD). These players have higher capacities currently ranging up to 250 GB.[11] At typical encoding rates, this means that tens of thousands of songs can be stored on one player.
* MP3 CD Players: Portable CD players that can decode and play MP3 audio files stored on CDs.
* Networked audio players: Players that connect via (WiFi) network to receive and play audio.

Many players have a built-in electret microphone which allows recording. Usually recording quality is poor, suitable for speech but not music.

There are also professional-quality recorders suitable for high-quality music recording with external microphones, at prices starting at a few hundred dollars.

Some DAPs have FM radio tuners built in.

Common audio formats
Most audio formats use lossy compression, to produce as small as possible a file compatible with the desired sound quality. There is a trade-off between size and sound quality of lossily compressed files; most formats allow different combinations—e.g., MP3 files may use between 32 (worst) and 320 (best) kilobits per second. Different lossy formats may give files of different sizes for the same perceived quality.

The formats supported by a particular DAP depend upon its firmware; sometimes a firmware update adds more formats. To listen to a file on a player, it must be in a supported format; format conversion on a computer is usually possible, but with loss of quality.

MP3 is the dominant format, and is almost universally supported. It is a proprietary format; manufacturers must pay a small royalty to be allowed to support it.

The main proprietary alternative formats are AAC and WMA. Unlike MP3, these formats support DRM restrictions that are often enforced by files from paid download services.

Open source formats, which do not require manufacturers or music distributors to pay a fee, are available, though less widely supported. Examples include Ogg Vorbis, FLAC, and Speex.

Most players can also play uncompressed PCM in a container such as WAV or AIFF.

Further information: iTunes Store, and Digital Rights Management

Although these issues aren't usually controversial within digital audio players, they are matters of continuing controversy and litigation, including but not limited to content distribution and protection, and digital rights management (DRM).

Lawsuit with RIAA
The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) filed a lawsuit in late 1998 against Diamond Multimedia for its Rio players,[7][15] alleging that the device encouraged copying music illegally. But Diamond won a legal victory on the shoulders of the Sony Corp. v. Universal City Studios case and DAPs were legally ruled as electronic devices.[16]

Risk of hearing damage
According to SCENIHR, the risk of hearing damage from digital audio players depends on both sound level and listening time. The listening habits of most users are unlikely to cause hearing loss, but some people are putting their hearing at risk, because they set the volume control very high or listen to music at high levels for many hours per day. Such listening habits may result in temporary or permanent hearing loss, tinnitus, and difficulties understanding speech in noisy environments.
Source: Wikipedia